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Unintended Effects of Genetic Manipulation

A Project of The Nature Institute

Project Director: Craig Holdrege
Email: nontarget@natureinstitute.org

A Browsable and Searchable Database

You can also check out updates and short news items.

We have collected examples from the scientific literature, primarily from peer-reviewed journals, on unintended effects of genetic manipulation. We have written short reports about each example. These are ordered and can be searched according to different categories (see below). We present examples of a wide array of different kinds of unintended effects. This compilation is by no means exhaustive and the literature still to be reviewed is extensive. We will continue to add reports over time. We encourage readers to alert us to mistakes and also to notify us of unintended effects documented in the scientific literature that we have not taken into account; contact Craig Holdrege.

For important explanations and background information, see "Understanding the Unintended Effects of Genetic Manipulation".

For examples offering an overview of the findings reported on this website, see "Some Examples of Unintended Effects of Genetic Manipulation".

Choose any of the following categories to begin your search:
TYPE OF UNINTENDED EFFECT
Behavioral
Environmental/Social/Economic
Food and Feed Quality
Physiological
Morphological
Scrambled DNA

INTENDED EFFECT
Search by specific intended effects, which include insect and herbicide resistance, altered morphology, nutritional enhancement, and so on.

MANIPULATED ORGANISM
Animals
Plants
Microorganisms

COMMERCIALIZED PRODUCT
Search for genetically manipulated products now on the market.

MOST RECENTLY ADDED REPORTS
For recent commentaries and articles, click here.

ALL REPORTS
Browse complete list of reports, arranged alphabetically by name of manipulated organism.

SEARCH the entire "Unintended Effects of Genetic Manipulation" website. (Use your browser's back button to return to this page.)
PLEASE NOTE: IN ORDER TO AVOID MISSING A LARGE PERCENTAGE OF THE RELEVANT FILES, CLICK ON "REPEAT THE SEARCH WITH THE OMITTED RESULTS INCLUDED" AT THE END OF THE LAST PAGE OF SEARCH RESULTS.



View a bibliography of articles discussed, ordered alphabetically by first author. Each bibliographic entry is linked to one or more individual reports.

View a bibliography of overview publications concerning unintended effects.

View a collection of articles on the broader issues of genetics and genetic engineering written by Nature Institute staff members Craig Holdrege, Stephen L. Talbott, and others.

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