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Unintended Effects of Genetic Manipulation

Titles of All Reports

A group of transgenic barley plants expressing the bar selectable marker gene did not produce viable offspring.

Adoption of GM Cotton Slowing in West Africa Due to Concerns About Inferior Qualities of Crop

Alfalfa with corn transgenes for anthocyanin (red-purple pigment) production was not visibly altered or changed dependent on light and temperature conditions.

Apples over-expressing a fruit-ripening enzyme lacked flowers and had malformed stomata and altered composition of cell walls.

Atlantic salmon expressing transgenic growth hormone experienced numerous changes to their cardiorespiratory system.

Atlantic salmon fed Bt corn had altered enzyme activity in liver and intestine as well as altered proportions and numbers of different white blood cells.

Barley with the transgene for a heat-stable enzyme showed highly variable levels of the enzyme, an anomalous distribution of expression in the grain, and dramatically reduced weight of individual grains.

Bt cotton had altered protein metabolism and produced less insecticidal toxin in leaves when subjected to high temperatures during boll formation.

Bt cotton showed decreased ability to kill cotton bollworm larvae during flower development and flowering.

Bt maize had changed lipid composition in stems; also, lipid composition in soil was altered, and soil respiration was reduced.

Bt maize has higher lignin content.

Bt maize varieties matured more slowly and had on average lower grain yield and higher grain moisture content than conventional varieties.

Bt rice showed signs of dwarfism and other abnormalities.

Byproducts from Bt maize enter streams, and in feeding experiments affected stream insects.

Canola plants over-expressing a bacterial phytoene synthase gene also had a reduced level of chlorophyll, changed structure of plastids, changed composition of fatty acids, and delayed germination.

Conventional, certified canola seedlots were contaminated with genetically engineered seeds.

Cotton plants and seeds expressing Bt toxin were found in non-Bt refuges.

Dandelions manipulated to have compound leaves showed irregular leaf form and did not flower.

Detection of GMOs in non-GM food and feed imports

Diet containing glyphosate-resistant soybeans affected the nuclei of liver cells in mice.

Difficulties were encountered when trying to express human collagen in barley.

Discoloration and DNA rearrangements were observed in transgenic tobacco plants expressing HIV proteins.

Experimental cross-pollination between transgenic herbicide-resistant canola and wild field mustard led to highly fertile, herbicide-resistant wild field mustard.

Fewer wild bees were observed in glyphosate-resistant canola fields.

Field performance of Bt transgenic crops: A review

Flavonol-enriched tomatoes had altered levels of at least fifteen other substances.

Fruiting morphology was altered when glyphosate-resistant cotton was sprayed with glyphosate.

Genes escaped from cultivated GM rice to its weedy and wild relatives.

Genetically modified atlantic salmon/brown trout hybrids have unexpected ecological effects.

Genetically modified insect-resistant rice and weedy rice hybrids have increased seed production.

Glyphosate-resistant cotton showed abnormal reproductive development when sprayed with glyphosate.

Glyphosate-resistant GM soybeans differ compositionally from non-GM soybeans and contain high residues of the herbicide glyphosate.

Glyphosate-resistant soybeans had lower yields.

Glyphosate-resistant soybeans have altered root nodules when sprayed with glyphosate.

Glyphosate-resistant sugar beet production alters population densities of some arthropods, significantly reducing the number of bees and butterflies in beet fields.

Glyphosate-resistant sugar beets became more susceptible to root rot when sprayed with glyphosate.

GM cotton and suicide rates.

GM Maize Differs from Non-GM Maize at Molecular Level In Unintended Ways, Including in Response to Drought Stress.

GM wheat outcrosses more often than unmodified wheat of the same varieties.

Herbicide-resistant canola volunteers were still detected after ten years of stringent control.

Herbicide-resistant soybean plants were shorter, with less chlorophyll, lower weight, and increased susceptibility to stem-splitting at high temperatures.

Increased planting of glyphosate-resistant crops and application of glyphosate causes increase in glyphosate-resistant weed species.

Increased resistance to Bt toxin is found in some populations of cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa zea).

Increasing resistance of pests to genetically modified, insect-resistant Bt crops

Innate Immunity is Affected in Insect-Resistant GM Aspens

Insect-resistant, transgenic cotton was more susceptible to fungal disease than its parent line.

Insect-resistant transgenic potatoes had less foliage and altered levels of leaf-glycoalkaloids.

Insertion of transgenes in oats resulted in modification of both the transgenic construct and host DNA.

Inulin-storing potatoes had higher alkaloid content and pigs fed on them had reduced daily weight gain.

Leaf litter from insect-resistant transgenic trees causes changes in aquatic insect community composition.

Long-term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize.

Monarch butterfly larvae exposed to anthers from Bt maize ate less and gained less weight.

New CRISPR genetic engineering technology caused large number of unintended mutations, researchers in mouse study conclude

Overexpression of phytoene synthase gene in Arabidopsis resulted in delayed germination, increased levels of chlorophyll, and changes in relative levels of carotenoids.

Peas engineered to be weevil-resistant elicited immune reactions in mice.

Peas engineered to be weevil-resistant had lowered starch digestibility when fed to chickens and pigs.

Perspective matters: Bias and conflict of interest in studies about genetically modified organisms.

Pheromone-producing GM wheat does not repel pests in field trials.

Pineapple plants with transgenes for fungus and herbicide resistance had altered biochemical make-up.

Plant height and flowering were altered in alfalfa genetically engineered to reduce lignin content.

Plants producing a biodegradable polyester were smaller, never produced seeds and showed severe changes in metabolism.

Potatoes genetically modified to store more starch stored less starch.

Potatoes with altered sugar metabolism had changed levels of many metabolites, some not thought to be associated with sugar metabolism.

Potatoes with transgene for virus resistance were variably resistant, and some lines without the target gene nevertheless became highly resistant.

Potential unintended effects of RNAi-based insecticidal crops.

Root colonization of glyphosate-resistant soybeans by pathogenic Fusarium fungi increased with glyphosate application.

Root nodule bacteria with Bt transgene tended to displace non-manipulated bacteria in legume root nodules.

Sheep growth hormone expression was highly variable in transgenic pigs, whose bodies had more protein and water and less fat.

Single-site integration of foreign DNA into Arabidopsis showed rearrangements and deletions of both plant DNA and foreign DNA.

Spread of herbicide-resistance from genetically modified creeping bentgrass into the wild.

Spring wheat with scab-resistance transgene was not scab-resistant and showed localized death of leaf tissue.

Sugarcane engineered to reduce polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity had greater PPO activity, even without the transgene.

Sugarcane plants with lectin transgene for stemborer resistance showed altered growth.

Suppression of DHS enzyme in Arabidopsis (a mustard plant) was associated with enlarged leaves, greater root mass, and enhanced seed yield.

Suppression of DHS gene in tomatoes was associated with lack of fruiting, altered leaf morphology, higher rate of photosynthesis and other changes.

Tilapia fish engineered for transgenic expression of growth hormone had deformed heads and backs, atrophied gonads, and lower mineral content.

Tomato plants overexpressing phytoene synthase gene were stunted in growth.

Traditional Non-GMO Cotton Can Yield Economic Benefits Similar to GMO Cotton on Non-Irrigated Small Farms in India

Transgene in corn, intended to raise iron availability, also changed levels of other minerals and proteins.

Transgenes that have escaped from glyphosate-resistant canola can persist in the wild.

Transgenic barley plants over-expressing a zinc transport protein had smaller seeds and did not accumulate more zinc when grown in zinc-deficient soil.

Transgenic birch trees expressing an antifungal enzyme from sugarbeets showed increased susceptibility to leaf spot disease in the field.

Transgenic coho salmon expressing growth hormone had enlarged heads, reduced viability, and accelerated development of their life cycle.

Transgenic DNA from glyphosate-resistant soybeans was detected in the intestinal flora of humans.

Transgenic expression of a disease-resistance gene activated the oxidative-stress response in rice.

Transgenic expression of a mouse milk protein impaired mammary development and function in pigs.

Transgenic expression of growth hormone in coho salmon led to a narrower body, more red muscle mass, and smaller white muscle fibers.

Transgenic expression of sheep growth hormone in sheep increased the incidence of reproductive problems and premature death.

Transgenic goats engineered to secrete the human protein cholinesterase into their milk produced less milk, with lower fat and lactose levels and unusually high white blood cell counts.

Transgenic pigs expressing bovine growth hormone had lower appetites, enlarged organs, gastric ulcers, and other health problems.

Transgenic pigs with elevated levels of growth hormone were infertile, pre-diabetic, and experienced joint problems.

Transgenic sequences of some Bt maize plants have changed since they were approved.

Transgenic sheep had unusually high morbidity and expressed a milk-specific protein in their spleen, liver, and other organs.

Transgenic tobacco with resistance to bleaching herbicides had altered composition of carotenoids.

Transgenic tomatoes altered with a marker gene construct showed significant changes in morphological and physiological characteristics.

Unintended changes in gene expression were observed in Arabidopsis plants engineered for resistance to the herbicide glufosinate.

Unintended Effects of Herbicide-Resistance Genes on Crop Yield.

Western Corn Rootworm Not Killed by Bt Corn in Iowa.

Western corn rootworms were found feeding on volunteer corn plants expressing a Bt toxin specific to that pest.

Wheat expressing transgenic glutenin shows reduction in yield, varying production of glutenin, and altered morphology.

Wheat transformed with a high-molecular-weight glutenin gene showed irregular expression of glutenin and changed its expression levels over subsequent generations.

Wheat with transgene for low-molecular-weight glutenin showed anomalies in glutenin production and some plants had reduced levels of other storage proteins.

Why GM bacteria haven’t succeeded in the real world: It’s the context, not only the genes.

Wild sunflowers with transgene for Bt toxin produced more seeds than normal wild sunflowers.

Yield differences between insect-resistant Bt rice and non-GM rice.


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