Nature Institute Perspectives
Seeing Nature Whole:
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Genetics and Biotechnology
Unintended Effects of
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Biology Worthy of Life
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Ronald H. Brady
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Transgene in corn, intended to raise iron availability, also changed
levels of other minerals and proteins.
Bt maize has higher lignin content.
Atlantic salmon fed Bt corn had altered enzyme activity in liver
and intestine as well as altered proportions and numbers of different
white blood cells.
Monarch butterfly larvae exposed to
anthers from Bt maize ate less and gained less weight.
Byproducts from Bt maize enter streams, and in feeding experiments
affected stream insects.
Bt maize varieties matured more slowly and had on average lower
grain yield and higher grain moisture content than conventional varieties.
Bt maize had changed lipid composition in stems; also, lipid
composition in soil was altered, and soil respiration was reduced.
Western corn rootworms were found feeding on volunteer corn plants
expressing a Bt toxin specific to that pest.
The transgenic sequences of some Bt maize plants have changed since
they were approved.
Increased planting of glyphosate-resistant crops and application of
glyphosate causes increase in glyphosate-resistant weed species.
Long-term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant
genetically modified maize.
GM Maize Differs from Non-GM Maize at Molecular Level
In Unintended Ways, Including in Response to Drought Stress
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