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Unintended Effects of Genetic Manipulation

Manipulated Organism: Plants - Maize (Corn)

Transgene in corn, intended to raise iron availability, also changed levels of other minerals and proteins.

Bt maize has higher lignin content.

Atlantic salmon fed Bt corn had altered enzyme activity in liver and intestine as well as altered proportions and numbers of different white blood cells.

Monarch butterfly larvae exposed to anthers from Bt maize ate less and gained less weight.

Byproducts from Bt maize enter streams, and in feeding experiments affected stream insects.

Bt maize varieties matured more slowly and had on average lower grain yield and higher grain moisture content than conventional varieties.

Bt maize had changed lipid composition in stems; also, lipid composition in soil was altered, and soil respiration was reduced.

Western corn rootworms were found feeding on volunteer corn plants expressing a Bt toxin specific to that pest.

The transgenic sequences of some Bt maize plants have changed since they were approved.

Increased planting of glyphosate-resistant crops and application of glyphosate causes increase in glyphosate-resistant weed species.

Long-term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize.

GM Maize Differs from Non-GM Maize at Molecular Level In Unintended Ways, Including in Response to Drought Stress

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