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Unintended Effects of Genetic Manipulation
A Project of The Nature Institute
Project Director:  Craig Holdrege
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Overview Publications

We include in this bibliography publications that present overviews of genetic engineering with information and references concerning unintended, nontarget effects of genetic manipulation. The publications are written from a variety of perspectives, both in relation to content (e.g. health concerns or environmental impact) and to author assessments of the importance of unintended effects.

To browse or search our reports on unintended effects, click here. To see a bibliography of the articles cited in these reports, click here.

Affifi, R. (2016). “The Semiosis of ‘Side Effects’ in Genetic Interventions.” Biosemiotics, pp. 1-20. doi:10.1007/s12304-016-9274-3.

Andow, D. A. and A. Hilbeck (2004). "Science-based Risk Assessment for Non-target Effects of Transgenic Crops." BioScience vol. 54, pp. 637-49.

Benbrook, C. M. (2004). "Genetically Engineered Crops and Pesticide Use in the United States: The First Nine Years," BioTech InfoNet Technical Paper #7.

Cadeira, A. L. and S. O. Duke (2006). "The Current Status and Environmental Impacts of Glyphosate-Resistant Crops: A Review," Journal of E