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Unintended Effects of Genetic Manipulation

Intended Effect: Improved Food and Feed Quality (Animals)


Transgenic pigs with elevated levels of growth hormone were infertile, pre-diabetic, and experienced joint problems.

Intended Effect: Improved Food and Feed Quality (Plants)

Improved Feed Quality - Accumulation of Anthocyanins


Alfalfa with corn transgenes for anthocyanin (red-purple pigment) production was not visibly altered or changed dependent on different light and temperature conditions.

Improved Feed Quality - Reduced Lignin Content


Plant height and flowering were altered in alfalfa genetically engineered to reduce lignin content.

Improved Food Quality - More Attractive Color


Sugarcane engineered to reduce polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity had greater PPO activity, even without the transgene.

Improved Food Quality - Nutrition


Transgenic barley plants over-expressing a zinc transport protein had smaller seeds and did not accumulate more zinc when grown in zinc-deficient soil.


Transgene in corn, intended to raise iron availability, also changed levels of other minerals and proteins.


New GMO Rice Lines in India Are High in Vitamin A Precursor, But Unfit for Cultivation Due to Low Yield and Lack of Plant Vigor

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