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Unintended Effects of Genetic Manipulation


Intended Effect: Improved Food and Feed Quality (Animals)

pig

Transgenic pigs with elevated levels of growth hormone were infertile, pre-diabetic, and experienced joint problems.



Intended Effect: Improved Food and Feed Quality (Plants)

Improved Feed Quality - Accumulation of Anthocyanins

alfalfa

Alfalfa with corn transgenes for anthocyanin (red-purple pigment) production was not visibly altered or changed dependent on different light and temperature conditions.


Improved Feed Quality - Reduced Lignin Content

alfalfa

Plant height and flowering were altered in alfalfa genetically engineered to reduce lignin content.


Improved Food Quality - More Attractive Color

sugarcane

Sugarcane engineered to reduce polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity had greater PPO activity, even without the transgene.


Improved Food Quality - Nutrition

barley

Transgenic barley plants over-expressing a zinc transport protein had smaller seeds and did not accumulate more zinc when grown in zinc-deficient soil.


maize

Transgene in corn, intended to raise iron availability, also changed levels of other minerals and proteins.


rice

New GMO Rice Lines in India Are High in Vitamin A Precursor, But Unfit for Cultivation Due to Low Yield and Lack of Plant Vigor


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